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【趣味學習】英文經典小說推薦——《了不起的蓋茨比》The Great Gatsby

樓主:哈爾濱市第三中學校國際部 時間:2021-04-19 13:48:21

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作者簡介

F.S.菲茨杰拉德(Francis Scott Fitzgerald 1896~1940),美國小說家。1896年菲茨杰拉德9月24日生于明尼蘇達州圣保羅市。父親是家具商。他年輕時試寫過劇本。讀完高中后考入普林斯頓大學。在校時曾自組劇團,并為校內文學刊物寫稿。后因身體欠佳,中途輟學。1917年入伍,終日忙于軍訓,未曾出國打仗。退伍后堅持業余寫作。1920年出版了長篇小說《人間天堂》,從此出了名,小說出版后他與吉姍爾達結婚。婚后攜妻寄居巴黎,結識了安德遜、海明威等多位美國作家。1925年《了不起的蓋茨比》問世,奠定了他在現代美國文學史上的地位,成了20年代"爵士時代"的發言人和"迷惘的一代"的代表作家之一。菲茲杰拉德成名后繼續勤奮筆耕,但婚后妻子講究排場,后來又精神失常,揮霍無度,給他帶來極大痛苦。他經濟上入不敷出,一度去好萊塢寫劇本掙錢維持生計。1936年不幸染上肺病,妻子又一病不起,使他幾乎無法創作,精神瀕于崩潰,終日酗酒。1940年12月21日迸發心臟病,死于洛杉磯,年僅44歲。菲茲杰拉德不僅寫長篇小說,矩篇小說也頻有特色。除上述兩部作品外,主要作品還有《夜色溫柔》(1934)和《末代大亨的情緣》(1941)。他的小說生動地反映了20年代"美國夢"的破滅,展示了大蕭條時朗美國上層社會"荒原時代"的精神面貌。


推薦理由

“蓋茨比”的了不起不在故事,而在于這個簡單的故事映襯了一個大時代。本書記載了個人化的生活,鋪陳了狹窄的生活場景,記錄了“爵士時代”的社會側面。此外,《了不起的蓋茨比》還是一個關于美國夢的時代寓言,也是作家本人“靈魂的黑夜”的投影,展現了永恒的人性。


內容簡介

年輕時的蓋茨比并不富有,他是一位少校軍官,愛上了一位叫黛茜的姑娘,黛茜也對他情有所鐘。后來第一次世界大戰爆發,蓋茨比被調往歐洲,似是偶然卻也是必然,黛茜因此和他分手,轉而與一個出身于富豪家庭的紈绔子弟湯姆結了婚。

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? 黛茜婚后的生活并不幸福,因為湯姆另有情婦,物欲的滿足并不能填補黛茜精神上的空虛。蓋茨比痛苦萬分,他堅信是金錢讓黛茜背叛了心靈的貞潔,于是立志要成為富翁。幾年以后,蓋茨比終于成功了。他在黛茜府邸的對面建造起了一幢大廈。蓋茨比揮金如土,徹夜笙簫,一心想引起黛茜的注意,以挽回失去的愛情。黛茜的表哥尼克為蓋茨比的癡情所感動,便去拜訪久不聯系的遠房表妹黛茜,并向她轉達了蓋茨比的心意。

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? 黛茜在與蓋茨比相會中時時有意挑逗,蓋茨比昏昏然聽她隨意擺布,并且天真地以為那段不了情有了如愿的結局。然而真正的悲劇卻在此時悄悄啟幕,黛茜早已不是昔日的黛茜,黛茜不過將他倆的暖昧關系當做一種刺激。尼克終于有所察覺,但為時已晚......一次黛茜在心緒煩亂的狀態下開車,不小心軋死了丈夫的情婦。蓋茨比為保護黛茜,承擔了開車責任,但黛茜已打定主意拋棄蓋茨比。在湯姆的挑撥下,致使其情婦的丈夫開槍打死了蓋茨比。蓋茨比最終徹底成為了犧牲品……


原文賞析

?"美國夢"從一開始落地生根,一直是美利堅民族的理想與追求,它本該具有強大的生命力,然而在這本書里,它卻走向了幻滅。蓋茨比的故事告訴讀者,如果一種夢想,有的只是對物質的追求以及對成為"大人物"的渴望,卻缺乏對為什么要擁有財富和擁有了財富后究竟應該怎樣生存這樣一些具有人類終極意義的問題的思考,這樣的夢想終究是海市蜃樓,也必定是短視和沒有延續力的夢想。

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當金錢代表一切的時候,美國夢中原來包含的理想成分早已經不在。物質的美國夢雖然并不盡然是一個全部表達了美國精神的夢想,但美國夢的物質的一面給予人們這樣的思考:在美國夢的物質夢想實現以后,究竟應該如想的精神夢想,其內涵究竟應該包含一些什么樣的原則。沒有一個社會能夠僅僅依靠高水平的物質生活去長期維持人們的生活意義和興趣,人究竟要過的是精神生活,只有精神生活才是具有無限豐富發展的空間。

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以向他人炫耀、希望得到虛榮和聲望為特征的消費文化觀使個人難以成功,以蓋茨比為代表的底層人物的表現消費,表面上融入了上層社會,但事實上他們難以真正成為上流人物。蓋茨比等人的表現消費是以模仿為基礎的,這是由他們天生的自卑感造成的。蓋茨比編造自己的過去就體現了這種自卑感,這使得他們只能在上流社會中尋找自己心理上的歸屬。而這種自卑感令他們永遠難以擺脫從祖輩繼承下來的膚色、方言、口音、習慣、風俗、生活方式和行為舉止,給他們帶來種種的不適,使得他們難以融入上流社會。蓋茨比可以模仿,但卻難以彌補與上流社會的差距。


經典語句

1. 每當你覺得想要批評什么人的時候,你切要記著,這個世界上的人并非都具備你稟有的條件。

Whenever you feel like criticizing any one, just remember that all the people in this world haven’t had the advantages that you’ve had.

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2. 我整夜沒睡;霧笛聲一個勁兒在桑德海灣上凄惻地鳴響,我輾轉反側,像生了病一樣,理不清哪些是猙獰的現實,哪些是可怕的夢魘。

I couldn’t sleep all night; a foghorn was groaning incessantly on the Sound, and I tossed halfsick between grotesque reality and savage, frightening dreams.

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3. 他是上帝之子,如果這個詞還有什么別的含義的話,這里只能用它的本意,他要為天父的事業而獻身,服務于這一博大而又粗俗、浮華而又美麗的事業。

He was a son of God,a phrase which, if it means anything, means just thatand he must be about His Father’s business, the service of a vast, vulgar, and meretricious beauty.


原文欣賞

In my younger and more vulnerable years my father gave me some advice that I've been turning over in my mind ever since.

我年紀還輕,閱歷不深的時候,我父親教導過我一句話,我至今還念念不忘。

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"Whenever you feel like criticizing any one," he told me, "just remember that all the people in this world haven't had the advantages that you've had." In consequence, I'm inclined to reserve all judgments. Reserving judgments is a matter of infinite hope. I am still a little afraid of missing something if I forget that, as my father snobbishly suggested, and I snobbishly repeat, a sense of the fundamental decencies is parcelled out unequally at birth.

“每逢你想要批評任何人的時候,”他對我說,“你就記住,這個世界上所有的人,并不是個個都有過你擁有的那些優越條件。”久而久之,我就慣于對所有的人都保留判斷,保留判斷是表示懷有無限的希望。我現在仍然唯恐錯過什么東西,如果我忘記(如同我父親帶著優越感所暗示過的,我現在又帶著優越感重復的)基本的道德觀念是在人出世的時候就分配不均的。

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When I came back from the East last autumn I felt that I wanted the world to be inuniform and at a sort of moral attention forever; I wanted no more riotous excursions with privileged glimpses into the human heart. Only Gatsby, the man who gives his name to this book, was exempt from my reaction--Gatsby, whore presented everything for which I have an unaffected scorn. If personality is an unbroken series of successful gestures, then there was something gorgeous about him, some heightened sensitivity to the promises of life, as if he were related to one of those intricate machines that register earthquakes ten thousand miles away.

去年秋天我從東部回來的時候,我覺得我希望全世界的人都穿上軍裝,并且永遠在道德上保持一種立正姿勢。我不再要參與放浪形骸的游樂,也不再要偶爾窺見人內心深處的榮幸了。唯有蓋茨比——就是把名字賦予本書的那個人——除外,不屬于我這種反應的范圍——蓋茨比,他代表我所真心鄙夷的一切。假如人的品格是一系列連續不斷的成功的姿態,那么這個人身上就有一種瑰麗的異彩,他對于人生的希望具有一種高度的敏感,類似一臺能夠記錄萬里以外的地震的錯綜復雜的儀器。

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My family have been prominent, well?to?do people in this middle-western city forthree generations. The Carraways are something of a clan, and we have a tradition that we're descended from the Dukes of Buccleuch, but the actual founder of my line was my grandfather's brother. I graduated from New Haven in 1915, just a quarter of a century after my father, and a little later I participated in that delayed Teutonic migration known as the Great War. I enjoyed the counter?raid so thoroughly that I came back restless. Instead of being the warm center of the world, the Middle West now seemed like the ragged edge of the universe--so I decided to go east and learn the bond business. Everybody I knew was in the bond business, so I supposed it could support one more single man. Father agreed to finance me for a year, and after various delays I came east, permanently, I thought, in the spring of twenty?two.

我家三代以來都是這個中西部城市家道殷實的頭面人物。姓卡羅威的也可算是個世家,據家平傳說我們是布克婁奇公爵的后裔,但是我們家系的實際創始人卻是我祖父的哥哥。我在一九一五年從紐黑文畢業,剛好比我父親晚四分之一個世紀,不久以后我就參加了那個稱之為世界大戰的延遲的條頓民族大遷徙、我在反攻中感到其樂無窮,回來以后就覺得百無聊賴了。中西部不再是世界溫暖的中心,而倒像是宇宙的荒涼的邊緣——于是我決定到東部去學債券生意。我所認識的人個個都是做債券生意的,因此我認為它多養活一個單身漢總不成問題。父親答應為我提供一年的費用,然后又幾經耽擱我才在一九二二年春天到東部去,自以為是一去不返的了。

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And so with the sunshine and the great bursts of leaves growing on the trees, justas things grow in fast movies, I had that familiar conviction that life was beginning over again with the summer.

眼看陽光明媚,樹木忽然間長滿了葉子,就像電影里的東西長得那么快,我就又產生了那個熟悉的信念,覺得生命隨著夏天的來臨又重新開始了。

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There was so much to read, for one thing, and so much fine health to be pulled down out of the young breath-giving air. I bought a dozen volumes on banking and credit and investment securities. And I had the high intention of reading many other books besides. I was rather literary in college.

有那么多書要讀,這是一點,同時從清新宜人的空氣中也有那么多營養要汲取。我買了十來本有關銀行業、信貸和投資證券的書籍,除此之外,我還有雄心要讀許多別的書。我在大學的時候是喜歡舞文弄墨的。

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It was a matter of chance that I should have rented a house in one of the strangest communities in North America. It was on that slender riotous island which extends itself due east of New York. Twenty miles from the city a pair of enormous eggs, identical in contour and separated only by a courtesy bay, jut out into the most domesticated body of salt water in the Western hemisphere, the great wet barnyard of Long Island Sound.

純粹出于偶然,我租的這所房子在北美最離奇的一個村鎮。這個村鎮位于紐約市正東那個細長的奇形怪狀的小島上——那里除了其他大自然奇觀以外,還有兩個地方形狀異乎尋常。離城二十英里路,有一對其大無比的雞蛋般的半島,外形一模一樣,中間隔著一條小灣,一直伸進西半球那片最恬靜的咸水,長島海峽那個巨大的潮濕的場院。

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I lived at West Egg, the--well, the less fashionable of the two. My house was at the very tip of the egg, only fifty yards from the Sound, and squeezed between two huge places that rented for twelve or fifteen thousand a season. The one on my right was a colossal affair by any standard. It was Gatsby's mansion. Or, rather, as I didn't know Mr. Gatsby, it was a mansion inhabited by a gentleman of that name.

我住在西卵,這是兩個地方中比較不那么時髦的一個。我的房子緊靠在雞蛋的頂端,離海灣只有五十碼,擠在兩座每季租金要一萬二到一萬五的大別墅中間。我右邊的那一幢,不管按什么標準來說,都是一個龐然大物。這是蓋茨比的公館。或者更確切地說這是一位姓蓋茨比的闊人所住的公館,因為我還不認識蓋茨比光生。

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Across the courtesy bay the white palaces of fashionable East Egg glittered along the water, and the history of the summer really begins on the evening I drove over there to have dinner with the Tom Buchanans. Daisy was my second cousin onceremoved, and I'd known Tom in college. And just after the war I spent two dayswith them in Chicago.

小灣對岸,東卵豪華住宅區的潔白的宮殿式的大廈沿著水邊光彩奪目,那個夏天的故事是從我開車去那邊到湯姆-布坎農夫婦家吃飯的那個晚上才真正開始的。黛西是我遠房表妹,湯姆是我在大學里就認識的。大戰剛結束之后,我在芝加哥還在他們家住過兩天。

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Her husband, among various physical accomplishments, had been one of the most powerful ends that ever played football at New Haven. His family were enormously wealthy--even in college his freedom with money was a matter for reproach--but now he'd left Chicago and come East in a fashion that rather took your breath away.

她的丈夫,除了擅長其他各種運動之外,曾經是紐黑文有史以來最偉大的橄欖球運動員之一。他家里非常有錢——還在大學時他那樣任意花錢已經遭人非議,但現在他離開了芝加哥搬到東部來,搬家的那個排場可真要使人驚訝不已。

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And so it happened that on a warm windy evening I drove over to East Egg to see two old friends whom I scarcely knew at all. Their house was even more elaborate than I expected, and Tom Buchanan in riding clothes was standing with his legs apart on the front porch.

于是,在一個溫暖有風的晚上,我開車到東卵去看望兩個我幾乎完全不了解的老朋友。他們的房子比我料想的還要豪華。湯姆-布坎農身穿騎裝,兩腿叉開,站在前門陽臺上。

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He had changed since his New Haven years. Now he was a sturdy straw?haired man of thirty with a rather hard mouth and a supercilious manner. Two shining arrogant eyes had established dominance over his face and gave him the appearance of always leaning aggressively forward. It was a body capable of enormous leverage--a cruel body.

從紐黑文時代以來,他樣子已經變了。現在他是三十多歲的人了,時體健壯,頭發稻草色,嘴邊略帶狠相,舉止高傲。兩只炯炯有神的傲慢的眼睛已經在他臉上占了支配地位,給人一種永遠盛氣凌人的印象。這是一個力大無比的身軀,一個殘忍的身軀。

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His speaking voice, a gruff husky tenor, added to the impression of fractiousnes she conveyed.

他說話的聲音,又粗又大的男高音,增添了他給人的性情暴戾的印象。

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"Now, don't think my opinion on these matters is final," he seemed to say, "just because I'm stronger and more of a man than you are."

“我說,你可別認為我在這些問題上的意見是說了算的,”他仿佛在說,“僅僅因為我力氣比你大,比你更有男子漢氣概。”

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We talked for a few minutes on the sunny porch.

我們在陽光和煦的陽臺上談了幾分鐘。

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"I've got a nice place here," he said, his eyes flashing about restlessly.

“我這地方很不錯。”他說,他的眼睛不停地轉來轉去。

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"It belonged to Demaine, the oil man." He turned me around again, politely and abruptly. "We'll go inside."

“這地方原來屬于石油大王德梅因。”他又把我推轉過身來,客客氣氣但是不容分說,“我們到里面去吧。”

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We walked through a high hallway into a bright rosy?colored space, fragilely bound into the house by French windows at either end. The windows were ajar and gleaming white against the fresh grass outside that seemed to grow a little way into the house. A breeze blew through the room, blew curtains in at one end and out the other like pale flags, twisting them up toward the frosted wedding?cake of the ceiling, and then rippled over the wine?colored rug, making a shadow on it as wind does on the sea.

我們穿過一條高高的走廊,走進一間寬敞明亮的玫瑰色的屋子。兩頭都是落地長窗,把這間屋子輕巧地嵌在這座房子當中。這些長窗都半開著。在外面嫩綠的草地的映襯下,顯得晶瑩耀眼,那片草仿佛要長到室內來似的。一陣輕風吹過屋里,把窗簾從一頭吹進來,又從另一頭吹出去,好像一面面白旗,吹向天花板上糖花結婚蛋糕似的裝飾;然后輕輕拂過絳色地毯,留下一陣陰影有如風吹海面。

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The only completely stationary object in the room was an enormous couch on which two young women were buoyed up as though upon an anchored balloon. They were both in white, and their dresses were rippling and fluttering as if they had just been blown back in after a short flight around the house.

屋子里唯一完全靜止的東西是一張龐大的長沙發椅,上面有兩個年輕的女人,活像浮在一個停泊在地面的大氣球上。她們倆都身穿白衣,衣裙在風中飄蕩,好像她們乘氣球繞著房子飛了一圈剛被風吹回來似的。

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Then there was a boom as Tom Buchanan shut the rear windows and the caught wind died out about the room, and the curtains and the rugs and the two young women ballooned slowly to the floor.

忽然砰然一聲,湯姆-布坎農關上了后面的落地窗,室內的余風才漸漸平息,窗簾、地毯和兩位少婦也都慢慢地降落地面。

編輯:李柏燃

審核:王 ? ?博

哈爾濱市第三中學校國際部

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